Search

Nothing will be the same in the automotive industry.

At the beginning of the 20th century, 40 percent of American automobiles were powered by steam, 38 percent by electricity, and 22 percent by gasoline[1]. Nikolaus August Otto, German engineer who developed the four-stroke internal-combustion engine in 1861, which offered the first practical alternative to the steam engine as a power source.[2] Because of its reliability, its efficiency, and its relative quietness, Otto’s engine was an immediate success. In the following years, automobile manufacturers such as Ford, Daimler Benz, Porsche, Citroen, Rolls Royce, etc. began to produce cars using Otto's 4-stroke internal combustion engine, and although 100 years have passed, they continue to